Type 2 diabetes in young people ages 10 to 19 has more than doubled in the past 20 years, yet it remains difficult for physicians to predict who will be diagnosed and who will improve with treatment. A new study shows that measuring the circulating abundance of microRNAs — which affect insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas — is likely as effective as measuring the level of sugar in the blood for determining how a young person with the condition will fare.